Reaching the Unserved-Access to individual household toilets in vulnerable urban areas

September 2020

The Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) focused on Individual Household Toilets. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown that the urban poor, who depend on shared toilets are at a greater risk. Public agencies often cite lack of space, finance and sewerage access as reasons for not being able to make individual household toilets available for the urban poor. This document is a compendium of cases which show how the perceived barriers to constructing individual household toilets have been successfully addressed. These cases also highlight the important role played by women who took the decision to have a toilet and lead its construction. These experiences suggest that it is possible to build individual household toilets in most vulnerable areas.